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Table 5 A modified version of the conclusion to the survey of solvent selection guides [57]

From: Tools and techniques for solvent selection: green solvent selection guides

Category Bio-based Can be sourced renewably Potential biomass feedstock Not bio-based
Recommended Ethanol (4)a
Water
1-Butanol
Ethyl acetate (2)a
1-Butyl acetate
Isopropanol (1)a
Isopropyl acetate
Anisole
Sulpholane
Inbetween recommended and problematic   Acetic acid (9)a
Acetone
Ethylene glycol
Methanol (3)a
Acetic anhydride
t-Butanol
Methyl acetate
MIBK
Benzyl alcohol
Cyclohexanone
MEK
Problematic DMSO {12 %}b
2-MeTHF
   Acetonitrile (10)a
PhCl {2 %}b
DMPU
Heptane (5)a
Methylcyclohexane
Toluene (7)a
Xylene(s)
Inbetween problematic and hazardous   THF (6)a Formic acid
TBME
Cyclohexane
DCM (8)a {48 %}b
Pyridine
Hazardous   Triethylamine 1,4-Dioxane {0 %}b
1,2-DME {6 %}b
DMAc {12 %}b
DMF {31 %}b
Methoxyethanol
NMP {9 %}b
Diisopropyl ether {7 %}b
n-Hexane {14 %}b
Pentane
Highly hazardous    Diethyl ether {3 %}b Benzene
Chloroform {2 %}b
Carbon tetrachloride
1,2-DCE {4 %}b
Nitromethane
  1. aThe ranking of the top ten solvents used by GSK in pilot plant operations in 2005 have been provided in parentheses, excluding water [7]
  2. bUsage of solvents of concern and dipolar aprotic solvents as reported in Organic Process Research and Development between 1997 and 2012, presented as the percentage of papers containing reactions performed in each solvent [8]. Data is not available for greener solvents