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Table 3 Pfizer solvent replacement table [48]

From: Tools and techniques for solvent selection: green solvent selection guides

Solvent Issues Alternatives
Pentane Lower flash point than other similar solvents Heptane
Diethyl ether Lower flash point than other similar solvents 2-MeTHF, TBME
Diisopropyl ether Powerful peroxide formation compared to similar solvents 2-MeTHF, TBME
Hexane(s) More toxic than other similar solvents Heptane
Benzene Carcinogen Toluene
Chloroform Carcinogen DCM
1,2-DCE Carcinogen DCM
1,2-DME Carcinogen 2-MeTHF, TBME
Pyridine Carcinogenicity (not classifiable) Triethylamine (base)
1,4-Dioxane Carcinogenicity (not classifiable) 2-MeTHF, TBME
DCM Emissions Application dependant
Carbon tetrachloride Emissions DCM
DMF Reproductive toxicity Acetonitrile
DMAc Reproductive toxicity Acetonitrile
NMP Reproductive toxicity Acetonitrile