Open Access

Nano Cu-catalyzed efficient and selective reduction of nitroarenes under combined microwave and ultrasound irradiation

  • Huangdi Feng1, 2, 3,
  • Yuan Li1,
  • Shengji Lin1,
  • Erik V Van der Eycken2 and
  • Gonghua Song1Email author
Sustainable Chemical Processes20142:14

DOI: 10.1186/2043-7129-2-14

Received: 8 March 2014

Accepted: 2 June 2014

Published: 18 June 2014


In situ preparation of copper nanoparticles from a copper acetate precursor and its application as an efficient catalyst for the selective reduction of aromatic nitro compounds with hydrazine hydrate under combined microwave and ultrasound irradiation were described in detail. The results reveal the synergetic effect of microwave and ultrasound on the synthesis of copper nanoparticles, and formation of various amino derivatives.


Microwave Ultrasound Nanoparticle Reduction Nitroarene


From the viewpoint of environmentally benign and sustainable chemistry, there has been an increasing interest in the search for more sustainable chemical processes during the last decade [1, 2]. Based on this context, the use of efficient synthetic method, nontoxic chemicals, and benign solvents, is the most valuable feature for the design of a “ideal” chemical protocol. Recently, microwave (MW) and ultrasound (US) technologies have been widely adopted as important synthetic methods in modern organic chemistry, owing to the fact that these technologies can usually reduce the reaction time, minimize energy consumption and in certain cases, increase the yield and selectivity of product [36].

Catalytic reduction of aromatic nitro compounds remains appealing because it is widely employed in numerous syntheses of intermediates and final products throughout the dyes, agricultural chemicals, pharmaceuticals and materials both in the laboratory and in industry [79]. Although many synthetic routes have been reported for the preparation of anilines from the corresponding aromatic nitro compounds [1014], there is still necessary for the development of cost-effective catalysts with high activity in particular Fe- [15] and Cu-catalyzed [16] protocol. Recently, much attention has been attracted to the metal nanoparticles catalysts which have revealed high catalytic activities that far exceed those of conventional homogeneous catalysts, owing to their extremely small dimensions and huge special surface [17, 18]. A few procedures involving hydrogenation of nitrobenzene into aniline catalyzed by metal Pt [1922], Ru [23], Au [2426] and Rh [27] nanoparticles have been demonstrated. Pal et al. obtained amino derivatives by the reduction of aromatic nitro compounds with NaBH4 catalyzed by coinage of metal nanoparticles (Cu/Ag/Au) [28]. Wen et al. studied the catalytic transfer hydrogenation of aromatic nitro compounds in presence of polymer-supported nano-amorphous Ni-B catalyst [29]. Among the pioneering works of Cu nanoparticles [3034] emerged as a promising catalyst for organic synthesis, Saha and Ranu [35] reported the reduction of nitro-compounds catalyzed by nano copper particles, however, synthesis required high stoichiometric ratio of copper nanoparticles (3 equiv.) and excess reductant (5 equiv.) to nitro-compounds, long reaction time (8–12 hours) and argon protection.

As our continuing efforts on microwave and ultrasound-assisted reaction [3640], we found that combined microwave and ultrasound irradiation (CMUI) could strongly promote the nano Cu-catalyzed reduction of aromatic nitro compounds due to its simultaneous enhancement on heat and mass transfer. High reaction rate, low dosage of catalyst and excellent yields were achieved via a chemoselective reduction of aromatic nitro compounds with hydrazine hydrate under CMUI.

Results and discussion

As stated in the literature [41, 42], the initial copper nanoparticles were generated via a reduction of copper acetate (1 mmol) with hydrazine hydrate (2 equiv) in ethylene glycol (8 mL) under combined irradiation of MW: 100 W maximum power and US: 50 W at 120–125°C for 5 min. Characterization of the copper nanoparticles were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). All the peaks on the XRD pattern can be readily indexed to pure copper (JCPDS file No. 04–0836) as shown in Figure 1(a). TEM image of the catalyst exhibited that the spherical nanoparticles dispersed very well (Figure 1(b)). The Cu nanoparticles were then employed to catalyze the reduction of 1a with hydrazine hydrate. The desired product aniline 2a was obtained in 89% yield in 3.5 minutes under CMUI (Figure 2, entry 1). Encouraged by this result, we then investigated the possibility of reducing nitrobenzene with hydrazine hydrate using Cu(OAc)2 as a catalyst precursor under CMUI. 97% yield of 2a was formed (Figure 2, entry 2), and Cu nanoparticles were obtained by centrifuging and washing with ethanol. Nevertheless, the yield of 2a greatly reduced to 72% applying this reused Cu nanoparticle catalyst (Figure 2, entry 3). The activity decrease of catalyst was owing to the agglomeration and increase of particle size after reuse (Figure 3). This two-step domino reaction would involve an in situ preparation of nano Cu catalyst followed by reduction of nitrobenzene. We subsequently examined various solvents under CMUI in the presence of 50 mol% Cu(OAc)2 (Figure 2, entries 4–7). None of the solvents other than ethylene glycol could give a satisfactory. This is mainly due to the fact that the reduction of simple copper salts usually tend to stop at the Cu2O stage in the presence of a number of oxygenous water without protective agents, the di-OH group of ethylene glycol is probable a stabilizer of Cu2+ in aqueous and prevents the agglomeration and growth of nanoparticles [43]. Among the concentration of Cu(OAc)2 (Figure 2, entries 8–10) and hydrazine hydrate (Figure 2, entries 11–13) tested, 20 mol% Cu(OAc)2 and 3 equiv. hydrazine hydrate seemed to be the most efficient condition for this reaction. A lower reaction temperature of 105–110°C with relatively longer reaction time reduced the yield of the amine 2a to 73% (Figure 2, entries 14), while increasing the temperature to 130–135°C also resulted in a decreased yield of 85% (Figure 2, entry 15).
Figure 1

XRD pattern (a) and TEM images (b) of Cu nanoparticles.
Figure 2

Optimization of the conditions a .
Figure 3

TEM images of reused Cu nanoparticles.

Having optimized the conditions in hand (Figure 2, entry 12), we next evaluated the scope of the procedure by varying aromatic nitro compounds. The results shown in Figure 4 indicated that all reactions proceeded very smoothly (yields: 89–99%) and quickly (shorter than 6.5 min) under CMUI. Both electron-rich and electron-deficient aromatic nitro compounds 1 provided the desired product 2 in good yields. Substantial steric hindrance to the reduction was tolerated (Figure 4, entries 2, 5 and 10). Moreover, it is noteworthy that the dehalogenation was successfully avoided during the progress of the catalytic reduction of aromatic nitro compounds to the corresponding anilines under reaction conditions (Figure 4, entries 6–10) [44]. The chemoselective reduction was also observed in the case of m-dinitrobenzene (Figure 4, entry 11), where one nitro group remained intact. The extremely efficient dielectric heating along with intensive mass transfer in heterogeneous systems resulted in dramatic reaction rate enhancement, and the highly catalytic activity of in situ preparation of nano Cu made the reduction reaction more efficient with lower amount of catalyst (20 mol%) and hydrogen source (3 equiv.).
Figure 4

CMUI-assisted nano Cu-catalysed aromatic nitro reduction a .

To investigate the action of CMUI, we evaluated the reduction of nitrobenzene 1a with hydrazine hydrate in the present of pre-catalyst Cu(OAc)2 under conventional conditions. Only 52% yield of aniline was obtained after 12 hours at 120°C (Table 1, entry 2). Moreover, a lower yield was obtained when using either MW or US irradiation (Table 1, entries 3, 4). The viability of commercial metallic Cu powder as a catalyst in the reduction of nitrobenzene under CMUI (Table 1, entry 5) was also examined. Previous described enhancement of CMUI on heterogeneous system, as well as the activation of nano-size catalysts were clearly demonstrated herein.
Table 1

Reduction of nitrobenzene using different methods a


Catalyst (mol%)



Con. b (%)


Cu(OAc)2 (20)


4.5 min



Cu(OAc)2 (20)

convention heating

12 h



Cu(OAc)2 (20)


30 min



Cu(OAc)2 (20)


3 h



metallic Cu (20)


5 min


aReactions were performed using nitrobenzene (1.0 mmol), hydrazine hydrate (3 mmol) and ethylene glycol (6 mL) at 120–125°C, CMUI (MW: 100 W maximum power; US: 50 W).

bConversion based on GC–MS analysis.

The proposed reaction mechanism of this reduction process is shown in Scheme 1. Firstly, Cu(OAc)2 is reduced by hydrazine hydrate to provide activated copper nanoparticles which would react with another hydrazine hydrate resulting in the formation of CuH. This further proceeds to generate Cu and hydrogen by the thermal decomposition under the CMUI. Then the nitro compound is reduced to a nitroso compound which follows to provide the hydroxylamine and finally gives rise to amine via a hydrogenation process [45].
Scheme 1

Proposed reaction mechanism

Proposed reaction mechanism.


In conclusion, we have presented an efficient and convenient method for the chemoselective reduction of aromatic nitro compounds catalyzed by in situ prepared Cu nanoparticles under combined microwave and ultrasound irradiation. It allowed us to achieve wide range of anilines bearing both electron-donating and electron-withdrawing substituents in excellent yields. The intriguing results presented herein might open a promising new approach for the efficient preparation and application of nanoparticles.


All solvents and reagents were purchased from commercial sources and were used without prior purification. All combined microwave and ultrasound irradiation experiments were carried out in a apparatus (a professional TCMC–102 microwave apparatus (Nanjing Lingjiang Technological Development Company, China), operating at a frequency of 2.45 GHz with continuous irradiation power from 0 to 500 W, and a FS–250 professional ultrasound apparatus (Shanghai S. X. Ultrasonics, China), operating at a frequency of 20 KHz with controllable irradiation power from 10 to 100 W. The reactions were carried out in 15 mL two-necked Pyrex flask, placed in the microwave cavity and the tip of detachable horn should be immersed just under the liquid surface. TLC analysis was performed on aluminum backed plates SIL G/UV254. The products were purified by column chromatography and were identified by 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectra recorded on 400 MHz Bruker NMR instrument and GC–MS.

General experimental procedure for the peduction of nitroarenes

A mixture of nitro compounds (1 mmol), copper acetate (0.2 mmol), hydrazine hydrate (3 mmol) and ethylene glycol (4 mL) was subjected to microwave-ultrasound activation condition. Then hydrazine hydrate (3 mmol) in ethylene glycol (2 mL) was added and the ultrasound and microwave source are switched on successively (power level: US 50 W, MW 100 W maximum power). The mixture was irradiated simultaneously by microwaves and ultrasound until nearly complete conversion of aromatic nitro compounds. The progress of the reactions was monitored by TLC and GC–MS. The reaction mixture was then subjected to centrifugation. After decanting the liquid, the Cu nanoparticles were washed with ethanol (5 mL, three times), which was combined with the decantate. Water (10 mL) was added to the centrifugal liquid, and the product was extracted into ethyl acetate. Evaporation of solvent and the crude product was purified by column chromatography over silica gel (ethyl acetate/petroleum ether = 1:9–1:6) to afford the products.

Aniline (2a)

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): δ 7.34 (t, J = 7.5 Hz, 2H), 6.95 (d, J = 7.4 Hz, 1H), 6.80 (dd, J = 8.4, 0.8 Hz, 2H), 3.69 (s, 2H). 13C NMR (101 MHz, CDCl3): δ 146.78, 129.49, 118.60, 115.33. MS (GC-MS): 93 (M+)

o-toluidine (2b)

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): δ 7.25 (t, J = 7.0 Hz, 2H), 7.25 (t, J = 7.0 Hz, 2H), 6.93 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 1H), 6.93 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 1H), 6.87–6.77 (m, 1H), 6.86–6.78 (m, 1H), 3.67 (s, 2H), 3.67 (s, 2H), 2.33 (s, 3H), 2.33 (s, 3H). 13C NMR (101 MHz, CDCl3): δ 144.89, 130.64, 127.16, 122.48, 118.73, 115.13, 17.50. MS (GC-MS): 107 (M+)

m-toluidine (2c)

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): δ 7.36–7.18 (m, 1H), 6.78 (dd, J = 16.7, 7.8 Hz, 1H), 6.64 (ddd, J = 21.0, 11.0, 10.1 Hz, 2H), 3.73 (s, 2H), 2.43 (d, J = 34.7 Hz, 3H). 13C NMR (101 MHz, CDCl3): δ146.77, 139.21, 129.36, 119.52, 116.16, 112.50, 21.64. MS (GC-MS): 107 (M+)

p-toluidine (2d)

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): δ 7.01 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 2H), 6.69–6.62 (m, 2H), 3.49 (s, 1H), 2.29 (s, 2H). 13C NMR (101 MHz, CDCl3): δ 143.82, 129.77, 127.80, 115.29, 20.47. MS (GC-MS): 107 (M+)

2-aminophenol (2e)

1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 8.93 (s, 1H), 6.63 (dd, J = 7.7, 1.3 Hz, 1H), 6.55 (dtd, J = 9.1, 7.7, 1.6 Hz, 2H), 6.45–6.32 (m, 1H), 4.46 (s, 2H). 13C NMR (101 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 143.93, 136.49, 119.46, 116.38, 114.39, 114.31. MS (GC-MS): 109 (M+)

3-chlorobenzenamine (2f)

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): δ 7.11 (t, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 6.86–6.74 (m, 1H), 6.69 (t, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 6.56 (ddd, J = 8.1, 2.2, 0.8 Hz, 1H), 3.71 (s, 2H). 13C NMR (101 MHz, CDCl3): δ 147.86, 134.79, 130.46, 118.41, 114.98, 113.39. MS (GC-MS): 127 (M+)

4-chlorobenzenamine (2g)

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): δ 7.17–7.08 (m, 2H), 6.68–6.57 (m, 2H), 3.57 (s, 2H).

13C NMR (101 MHz, CDCl3): δ 145.00, 129.12, 123.11, 116.26. MS (GC-MS): 127 (M+)

3-bromobenzenamine (2h)

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): δ 7.05 (t, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 6.93 (ddd, J = 7.9, 1.7, 0.9 Hz, 1H), 6.85 (t, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 6.60 (ddd, J = 8.0, 2.2, 0.9 Hz, 1H), 3.73 (s, 2H). 13C NMR (101 MHz, CDCl3): δ 148.06, 130.80, 123.08, 121.31, 117.86, 113.84. MS (GC-MS): 170 (M+)

4-fluorobenzenamine (2i)

1H NMR (400MHz, CDCl3): δ 6.99–6.80 (m, 2H), 6.69–6.55 (m, 2H), 3.56 (s, 2H). 13C NMR (101MHz, CDCl3): δ 157.54, 155.21, 142.70, 142.68, 116.15, 116.08, 115.77, 115.55. MS (GC-MS): 111(M+)

2,5-dichlorobenzenamine (2j)

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): δ 7.17 (d, J = 8.5Hz, 1H), 6.77 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1H), 6.68 (dd, J = 8.5, 2.4 Hz, 1H), 4.08 (s, 2H). 13C NMR (101 MHz, CDCl3): δ 143.82, 133.12, 130.19, 118.84, 117.44, 115.37. MS (GC-MS): 162(M+)

3-nitrobenzenamine (2k)

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): δ 7.64–7.53 (m, 1H), 7.53–7.46 (m, 1H), 7.36–7.20 (m, 1H), 6.96 (ddd, J = 8.0, 2.3, 0.8 Hz, 1H), 4.03 (s, 2H). 13C NMR (101 MHz, CDCl3): δ 149.24, 147.48, 129.91, 120.64, 113.11, 109.01. MS (GC-MS): 138(M+)



Financial support for this work from the National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program) (Grant 2010CB126101) and the Shanghai Leading Academic Discipline Project (Project Number: B507) are gratefully acknowledged.

Authors’ Affiliations

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology, East China University of Science and Technology
Department of Chemistry, Laboratory for Organic & Microwave-Assisted Chemistry (LOMAC), Katholieke Universiteit Leuven
College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University of Engineering Science


  1. Clark JH: Green chemistry: challenges and opportunities. Green Chem. 1999, 1: 1-8. 10.1039/a807961g.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  2. Li CJ, Anastas PT: Green Chemistry: present and future. Chem Soc Rev. 2012, 41: 1413-1414. 10.1039/c1cs90064a.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  3. Appukkuttan P, Mehtaa VP, Van der Eycken EV: Microwave-assisted cycloaddition reactions. Chem Soc Rev. 2010, 39: 1467-1477. 10.1039/b815717k.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  4. Kappe CO, Van der Eycken EV: Click chemistry under non-classical reaction conditions. Chem Soc Rev. 2010, 39: 1280-1290. 10.1039/b901973c.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  5. Cracotto G, Cintas P: Power ultrasound in organic synthesis: moving cavitational chemistry from academia to innovative and large-scale applications. Chem Soc Rev. 2006, 35: 180-196. 10.1039/b503848k.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  6. Polshettiwar V, Varma RS: Microwave-Assisted Organic Synthesis and Transformations using Benign Reaction Media. Acc Chem Res. 2008, 41: 629-639. 10.1021/ar700238s.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  7. Tafesh AM, Weiguny J: A Review of the Selective Catalytic Reduction of Aromatic Nitro Compounds into Aromatic Amines, Isocyanates, Carbamates, and Ureas Using CO. Chem Rev. 1996, 96: 2035-2052. 10.1021/cr950083f.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  8. Li F, Cui JN, Qian XH, Zhang R, Xiao Y: Highly chemoselective reduction of aromatic nitro compounds to the corresponding hydroxylamines catalysed by plant cells from a grape. Chem Commun. 2005, 43: 1901-1903.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  9. He DP, Shi H, Wu Y, Xu BX: Synthesis of chloroanilines: selective hydrogenation of the nitro in chloronitrobenzenes over zirconia-supported gold catalyst. Green Chem. 2007, 9: 849-951. 10.1039/b618367k.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  10. Liang M, Wang X, Liu H, Wang J: Excellent catalytic properties over nanocomposite catalysts for selective hydrogenation of halonitrobenzenes. J Catal. 2008, 255: 335-342. 10.1016/j.jcat.2008.02.025.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  11. Chandrasekhar S, Prakash SJ, Rao CL: Poly(ethylene Glycol) (400) as Superior Solvent Medium against Ionic Liquids for Catalytic Hydrogenations with PtO2. J Org Chem. 2006, 71: 2196-2199. 10.1021/jo052604x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  12. Shi Q, Lu R, Lu L, Fu X, Zhao D: Efficient Reduction of Nitroarenes over Nickel-Iron Mixed Oxide Catalyst Prepared from a Nickel-Iron Hydrotalcite Precursor. Adv Synth Catal. 2007, 349: 1877-1881. 10.1002/adsc.200700070.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  13. Mandal PK, McMurray JS: Pd − C-Induced Catalytic Transfer Hydrogenation with Triethylsilane. J Org Chem. 2007, 72: 6599-6601. 10.1021/jo0706123.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  14. Rahaim RJ, Maleczka REJ: Pd-Catalyzed Silicon Hydride Reductions of Aromatic and Aliphatic Nitro Groups. Org Lett. 2005, 7: 5087-5090. 10.1021/ol052120n.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  15. Wienhöfer G, Sorribes I, Boddien A, Westerhaus F, Junge K, Junge H, Llusar R, Beller M: General and Selective Iron-Catalyzed Transfer Hydrogenation of Nitroarenes without Base. J Am Chem Soc. 2011, 133: 12875-12879. 10.1021/ja2061038.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  16. Sharma U, Kumar P, Kumar N, Kumar V, Singh B: Highly Chemo- and Regioselective Reduction of Aromatic Nitro Compounds Catalyzed by Recyclable Copper(II) as well as Cobalt(II) Phthalocyanines. Adv Synth Catal. 2010, 352: 1834-1840. 10.1002/adsc.201000191.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  17. Song XY, Sun SX, Zhang WM, Yin ZL: A method for the synthesis of spherical copper nanoparticles in the organic phase. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2004, 273: 463-469. 10.1016/j.jcis.2004.01.019.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  18. Mitudome T, Arita S, Mori H, Mizugaki T, Jitsukawa K, Kaneda K: Supported Silver-Nanoparticle-Catalyzed Highly Efficient Aqueous Oxidation of Phenylsilanes to Silanols. Angew Chem Int Ed. 2008, 47: 7938-7940. 10.1002/anie.200802761.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  19. Min KI, Choi JS, Chung YM, Ahn WS, Ryoo R, Lim PK: p-Aminophenol synthesis in an organic/aqueous system using Pt supported on mesoporous carbons. Appl Catal A Gen. 2008, 337: 97-140. 10.1016/j.apcata.2007.12.004.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  20. Takasaki M, Motoyama Y, Higashi K, Yoon SH, Mochida I, Nagashima H: Chemoselective Hydrogenation of Nitroarenes with Carbon Nanofiber-Supported Platinum and Palladium Nanoparticles. Org Lett. 2008, 10: 1601-1604. 10.1021/ol800277a.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  21. Wang F, Liu JH, Xu XL: Layered material γ-ZrP supported platinum catalyst for liquid-phase reaction: a highly active and selective catalyst for hydrogenation of the nitro group in para-chloronitrobenzene. Chem Commun. 2008, 46: 2040-2042.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  22. Motoyamal Y, Lee YJ, Tsuji K, Yoon SH, Mochida I, Nagashima H: Platinum Nanoparticles Supported on Nitrogen-doped Carbon Nanofibers as Efficient Poisoning Catalysts for the Hydrogenation of Nitroarenes. ChemCatChem. 2011, 3: 1578-1581. 10.1002/cctc.201100135.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  23. Liu MH, Yu WY, Liu HF: Selective hydrogenation of o-chloronitrobenzene over polymer-stabilized ruthenium colloidal catalysts. J Mol Catal A Chem. 1999, 138: 295-303. 10.1016/S1381-1169(98)00159-9.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  24. Boronat P, Concepción A, Corma S, González F, Serna IP: A Molecular Mechanism for the Chemoselective Hydrogenation of Substituted Nitroaromatics with Nanoparticles of Gold on TiO2 Catalysts: A Cooperative Effect between Gold and the Support. J Am Chem Soc. 2007, 129: 16230-16237. 10.1021/ja076721g.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  25. Lou XB, He L, Qian Y, Liu YM, Cao Y, Fan KN: Highly Chemo- and Regioselective Transfer Reduction of Aromatic Nitro Compounds using Ammonium Formate Catalyzed by Supported Gold Nanoparticles. Adv Synth Catal. 2011, 353: 281-286. 10.1002/adsc.201000621.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  26. Corma A, Serna P: Chemoselective Hydrogenation of Nitro Compounds with Supported Gold Catalysts. Science. 2006, 313: 332-334. 10.1126/science.1128383.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  27. Luo PF, Xu KL, Zhang R, Huang L, Wang J, Xing WH, Huang J: Highly efficient and selective reduction of nitroarenes with hydrazine over supported rhodium nanoparticles. Catal Sci Technol. 2012, 2: 301-304. 10.1039/c1cy00358e.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  28. Pradhan N, Pal A, Pal T: Catalytic Reduction of Aromatic Nitro Compounds by Coinage Metal Nanoparticles. Langmuir. 2001, 17: 1800-1802. 10.1021/la000862d.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  29. Wen HL, Yao KS, Zhang YD, Zhou ZM, Kirschning A: Catalytic transfer hydrogenation of aromatic nitro compounds in presence of polymer-supported nano-amorphous Ni–B catalyst. Catal Commun. 2009, 10: 1207-1211. 10.1016/j.catcom.2009.01.030.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  30. Ranu BC, Saha A, Jana R: Microwave-Assisted Simple and Efficient Ligand Free Copper Nanoparticle Catalyzed Aryl-Sulfur Bond Formation. Adv Synth Catal. 2007, 349: 2690-2696. 10.1002/adsc.200700289.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  31. Bhadra S, Saha A, Ranu BC: One-pot copper nanoparticle-catalyzed synthesis of S-aryl- and S-vinyl dithiocarbamates in water: high diastereoselectivity achieved for vinyl dithiocarbamates. Green Chem. 2008, 10: 1224-1230. 10.1039/b809200a.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  32. Kidwai M, Bansal V, Saxena A, Aerry S, Mozumdar S: Cu-Nanoparticles: efficient catalysts for the oxidative cyclization of Schiffs’ bases. Tetrahedron Lett. 2006, 47: 8049-8053. 10.1016/j.tetlet.2006.09.066.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  33. Singh P, Katyal A, Kalra R, Chandra R: Copper nanoparticles in an ionic liquid: an efficient catalyst for the synthesis of bis-(4-hydroxy-2-oxothiazolyl)methanes. Tetrahedron Lett. 2008, 49: 727-730. 10.1016/j.tetlet.2007.11.106.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  34. Ahammed S, Saha A, Ranu BC: Hydrogenation of Azides over Copper Nanoparticle Surface Using Ammonium Formate in Water. J Org Chem. 2011, 76: 7235-7239. 10.1021/jo200915h.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  35. Saha A, Ranu BC: Highly Chemoselective Reduction of Aromatic Nitro Compounds by Copper Nanoparticles/Ammonium Formate. J Org Chem. 2008, 73: 6867-6870. 10.1021/jo800863m.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  36. Peng YQ, Song GH: Simultaneous microwave and ultrasound irradiation: A rapid synthesis of hydrazides. Green Chem. 2001, 3: 302-304. 10.1039/b108878p.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  37. Peng YQ, Dou RL, Song GH: Surface cleaning under combined microwave and ultrasound irradiation: flash synthesis of 4H-pyrano[2,3-c]pyrazoles in aqueous media. Green Chem. 2006, 8: 573-575. 10.1039/b601209d.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  38. Feng HD, Li Y, Van der Eycken EV, Peng YQ, Song GH: Synthesis of polysubstituted pyridines under combined microwave and ultrasound irradiation: K2CO3-promoted tandem addition/cyclization/hydrogen shift process. Tetrahedron Lett. 2012, 53: 1160-1162. 10.1016/j.tetlet.2011.12.103.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  39. Feng HD, Lin SJ, Wang JY, Song GH, Peng YQ: Aqueous heterogeneous synthesis of polysubstituted 2,6-dicyanoanilines via combined microwave and ultrasound-assisted multicomponent reaction. Green Process Synth. 2012, 1: 463-468.Google Scholar
  40. Feng HD, Ying XL, Peng YQ, Van der Eycken EV, Liu CD, Zhao SS, Song GH: FeCl3- promoted synthesis of 1, 3, 4-thiadiazoles under combined microwave and ultrasound irradiation in water. Monatsh Chem. 2013, 144: 681-686. 10.1007/s00706-012-0846-x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  41. Zhu HT, Zhang CY, Yin YS: Novel synthesis of copper nanoparticles: influence of the synthesis conditions on the particle size. Nanotechnology. 2005, 16: 3079-3083. 10.1088/0957-4484/16/12/059.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  42. Zhu HT, Zhang CY, Yin YS: Rapid synthesis of copper nanoparticles by sodium hypophosphite reduction in ethylene glycol under microwave irradiation. J Crystal Growth. 2004, 270: 722-728. 10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2004.07.008.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  43. Park BK, Jeong S, Kim D, Moon J, Lim S, Kim JS: Synthesis and size control of monodisperse copper nanoparticles by polyol method. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2007, 311: 417-424. 10.1016/j.jcis.2007.03.039.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  44. Jin ZH, Wang XY, Wang ST, Li D, Lu GZ: The effect of triethylamine on the hydrodechlorination of chlorophenols on Pd/C at low temperature. Catal Commun. 2009, 10: 2027-2030. 10.1016/j.catcom.2009.07.024.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  45. Corma A, Concepcin P, Serna P: A different reaction pathway for the reduction of aromatic nitro compounds on gold catalysts. Angew Chem Int Ed. 2007, 46: 7266-7269. 10.1002/anie.200700823.View ArticleGoogle Scholar


© Feng et al.; licensee Chemistry Central Ltd. 2014

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.