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Table 1 Alternative polymer membranes used in fuel cell

From: Recent advances in application of chitosan in fuel cells

Alternative polymer membranes References Alternative polymer membranes References
The depositing of thin plasma polymerized barrier films on Nafion® membrane [53] sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) [54]
Nafion®/silicon oxide [55] Poly methyl methacrylate (MAA) [4]
Nafion®/Pd [56] PVA [4]
Nafion/Pd-Ag alloy [57] Poly vinyl sulfonic acid (PVS) [4]
plasma-etched membrane, [58] Sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) (BPSH) [59]
Pd-sputtered membrane,
plasma etched and Pd-sputtered membrane
Nafion® with montmorillonite (MMT) and MMT containing dodecylamine (m-MMT) membranes [60] Poly p-Styrene carboxylic (SCA) [4]
Nafion®/polypyrrole [61] Dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) [4]
Nafion®/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) [62] Polyphosphazene (PPh) [63, 64]
Nafion®/phosphotungstic acid-impregnated silicon dioxide (SiO2/PWA), [65, 66] Polybenzimidazole (PBI) [67, 68]
Nafion®/SiO2,
Nafion®/alumina (b-Al2O3)
Nafion®/zirconium phosphate (ZrP) [69] Sulfonated poly(phthalazinone ether ketone) (SPPEK) [70]
α,β,β-trifluorostyrene (TFS) [71] PVA/PWA [72]
TFS/styrene [73] PVA/PWA and silica [74]
TFS/vinyl fluoro monomers [75] SPEEK/Synthetic non-spherical silicates [76]
polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) [77] SPEEK/Zirconia (ZrO2) [78]
Poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) [4] PVA/Polystyrene sulfonic acid (PSSA) [79]
Poly (ethylene-alt tetrafluoroethylene) (ETFE) [77] PBI/Sulfonated polysulfone (SPf) [80]
Sulfonated polyimides (SPI) [81] Polysulfone (PSf)/PEG [82]